The International Court of Justice (ICJ) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN). The Court’s role is to settle, in accordance with international law, legal disputes submitted to it by States and to give advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by authorized United Nations organs and specialized agencies. The Court is composed of 15 judges, who are elected for terms of office of nine years by the United Nations General Assembly and the Security Council. It is assisted by a Registry, its administrative organ. Its official languages are English and French.
There are three courts in Alberta administered by the province: The Court of Appeal of Alberta; the Court of Queen's Bench of Alberta; and the Provincial Court of Alberta. Other courts which administer laws in Alberta include the Federal Court of Canada, the Tax Court of Canada and the Supreme Court of Canada. There are also a number of boards and tribunals in Alberta whose decisions may be appealed to the courts.
The following resources can help you understand more about various courts and tribunals.
This webpage from the Canadian Legal Information Institute (CanLII) contains a listing of links to federal boards and tribunals in Canada (scroll halfway down the page). For a list of provincial and territorial boards and tribunals, click on the province/territory in the list on the left hand menu bar and then scroll down to the Boards and Tribunals list.
This website provides a wide range of information about the Cout Martial Appeal Court. This Court hears appeals from military courts which are known as courts martial. The courts martial have power to try military personnel and civilians accompanying such personnel abroad for crimes and offences against the Code of Service Discipline.
The Federal Court is Canada's national trial court which hears and decides legal disputes arising in the federal domain, including claims against the Government of Canada, civil suits in federally-regulated areas and challenges to the decisions of federal tribunals. Its authority derives primarily from the Federal Courts Act.
Site developed by Canada Justice explaining the levels and types of courts in Canada: provincial/territorial courts (which handle the great majority of cases that come into the system), provincial/territorial superior courts (which deal with more serious crimes and also take appeals from provincial/territorial court judgments, the Federal Court, the provincial/territorial courts of appeal and the Federal Court of Appeal, the Supreme Court of Canada (at the highest level).
The Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (IRB) is Canada's largest independent administrative tribunal. It is responsible for making well-reasoned decisions on immigration and refugee matters, efficiently, fairly and in accordance with the law. The IRBdecides, among other responsibilities, who needs refugee protection among the thousands of claimants who come to Canada annually.
Appeals Officers in occupational health and safety, designated by the Minister of Labour and grouped under an administrative structure known as the Occupational Health and Safety Tribunal Canada (Tribunal), exercise the functions of an administrative tribunal.The mission of the Appeals Officers is to ensure expert, independent, unbiased quality service to all parties by treating them equally, fairly and with understanding, respect and dignity. The mandate of the Appeals Officers is to receive, hear and decide on appeals of decisions of absence of danger and directions regarding occupational health and safety issued pursuant to the Canada Labour Code.
The Tax Court of Canada is the youngest superior court in Canada. The Court’s jurisdiction includes the hearing of appeals from assessments under the Income Tax Act, the Excise Tax Act (Goods and Services Tax “GST”), the Employment Insurance Act and the Canada Pension Plan, among others. The website gives access to the court judgments as well as providing information for people who plan to represent themselves at the court.